Run Python Script From Idle With Arguments

I know to use sys. Chapter 32 - Python Code Analysis¶. Loading Unsubscribe from Vicky's Blog? Cancel Unsubscribe. You can specify to run a shell script on reboot. py" run a python script. I've had trouble with crontab and directory management and my solution is to amke a shell script, which always navigates to the proper directory and will launch my bbt. argv) function you can count the number of arguments. In this video we will see how Input and Output parameters work. Using the IDLE Environment. How to Run Python Scripts From a File Manager. >Both run ubuntu & both have python installed > >2. In R, values are simply returned from the function. This is the main window to IDLE, and what we see right now is called the "Interpreter" window. I'd like to take you through another way to run your Python scripts. py file? run python script in VB. But there are instances when we have to execute the scripts using command prompt. If you find running these programs at home interesting, then create more complex programs, such as an interactive program to convert between units of measurement. If you are interested in my Python for Network Engineers courses or in learning more about using Python for network automation—sign up for my email-list. Starting IDLE on Mac. Certain things work better if you add the suffix. Dockerfiles enable you to create your own images. Open Notepad++. Proxy objects ¶. So, if we have previously run the Scriptscript in the Demoproject, hovering over this button would show. Python provides a getopt module that helps you parse command-line options and arguments. Cygwin also behaves this way. / to them like this. There is an endless amount of pages that pop up when i search "Run a py file in vb. While running a python script in IDLE that asks for arguments, no prompt appears that asks for parameters. When a script file is used, it is sometimes useful to be able to run the script and enter interactive mode afterwards. It’s powerful, flexible, and most importantly, extremely easy to read. We can call Linux or Windows commands from python code or script and use output. If you are gonna work with command line arguments, you probably want to use sys. The Get Method. If the separator is not specified, any whitespace (space, newline etc. We show you how to create custom toolboxes and export models as Python scripts. การเซตให้คอมเครื่องแม่ แชร์เน็ต ให้เครื่องลูกหลายๆเครื่อง (แบบที่ 3 Kerio ยุ่งยากหน่อย แต่ประโยชน์มาก). Edit with IDLE or a Python editor to configure your file parameters. Arguments: script – The Python script to execute. I am trying to run a python script from the Spyder IDE, but I don't know how to specify input arguments. 0, released 2000, introduced features like list comprehensions and a garbage collection system capable of collecting reference cycles. To get a Python script automatically running when your Raspberry Pi starts, I would suggest using crontab. python3 myscript. To run them I enter sudo python Scale1. Run your python source file (. The script should print Hello world, from a Python script! and Press enter to continue. In this tutorial, I'll show you the steps to create a batch file to run a Python script using a simple example. Description. For example, the following would run the hello. So, this should be fairly straightforward, but for the life of me I cannot figure it out. For example. Then you can call this script from Java Runtime. The YAML format supports comments. execv() are the program to replace the current process with and arguments to this program. The YAML format supports comments. py (instead of python script. This has the effect of getting IDLE to default to the directory when opening and saving files. I mean, in Python functions can even have optional arguments, the scoping just works and functions can be passed as proper variables. When you are processing large numbers of files in a "batch" mode, you'll probably want to run them from the command line. This is useful for many machine learning tasks where one would like to use a command line application in a Python-driven pipeline. In python, executing the bash commands is a simple task. You can use following method to run the script which is created earlier or given by someone else. It turns out that there is a great tool PEX which can build an executable zip Python package. sh | ssh [email protected] but I do not know how to do same for Python script. Its integer arguments are the other values of the argv array. Script Path (Required when targetType == filePath) Path of the script to execute. Hope, script package add this feature in future for our help. You'll need to copy these from Connect Bridge Management Studio, as explained above (point 5. To exemplify how to use this activity pack, we have built an automation process to invoke a Python script which defines two operations, Add and Subtract. KJ · Hi, Thanks for your post! TFS invoke. To use sys. Once a package is created, it can be installed for system wide use by running the setup script. Recently I needed to create a package for a simple Python CLI tool which includes all dependencies. py)?-A text file with. I'm not trying to embed or extend Python code in C++. Executing Python Scripts •What is Python File (. This is raised when an unrecognized option is found in the argument list or when an. This tutorial was tested on a Raspberry Pi 3 model B+, running version 4. Listing 1: Call the script $ python arguments-programname. py to run a job in a thread. Also, PyMOL has lots of command line options that one can pass in to affect PyMOL's behavior. The only downside that I run into with Pyscopg2 and PostgreSQL is it is a little behind in terms of server side support functions like server side prepared queries but it is said that the author is expecting to implement these features in the near future. Recently I needed to create a package for a simple Python CLI tool which includes all dependencies. If executed with arguments the first argument is taken as the file path and further arguments are passed to the script in the sys. Running python my_example. If you have a program open in IDLE's file editor, running it is a simple matter of pressing F5 or selecting the Run Run Module menu item. Python has many packages, one for almost every task. Your program will now run in the main Python screen (titled 'Python Shell') and will look like this: Code Example 2 – mary. This window has a complete command history, so you can use the up arrow to select a previous statement and make changes. Python can execute a sequence of statements stored in diskfiles. But before we dive into the example, here is the batch file template that you can use to run the Python script: "Path where your Python exe is stored\python. Call python function with arguments and get returned value in autohotkey a string output = Run server. Where to type and run Python code? 1. To execute the script via the command prompt, use the cd command to cd to the directory where the hello. This extension makes IDLE's event loop drive a toolkit event loop periodically. Remember to quote this string!. Under Pre_Logic Script Code text box, we defined python function. There are cases when we want to test our local code if it runs on remotely. locals – A map of the name of a Java object in the Python execution context to the Java object itself. Code editors run from minimal, like Window’s Notepad, to the fully-featured and customizable, like Atom, Visual Studio Code, or PyCharm. In this case IDLE's mainloop is active also for the client script. Run a Python script under Windows with the Command Prompt. Note: escapeshellcmd() escapes any characters in a string that might be used to trick a shell command into executing arbitrary commands. Access arguments to python script. Jennifer Harrison—founder of TeachMeGIS—gets you comfortable writing scripts in IDLE, the integrated development environment for Python, and ramps up to writing output to the screen, passing. You can only pass in variable bindings, not arguments. The interactive interpreter is most useful for experimenting with small snippets of Python code while script mode is effective when we have to execute more than one line of code. Is there a way to run it inside the python console (cut and paste works) by pressing only one button (like the f5 in the idle). It appears that the Raspbian boot sequence has changed and these processes run at different points in that sequence. child_process. vi to execute a system-level command line that can include any parameters supported by the application you want to launch. Running a script by double-clicking on its icon in a file manager is another possible way to run your Python scripts. 7 -> IDLE (Python GUI) (alternatively, press Start menu and start typing "idle" and click when it appears. With a Python shell job, you can run scripts that are compatible with Python 2. Before running, IDLE prompts you to save the script as a file. com posted an article about some of the difficulty involved in launching a Windows PowerShell script from cmd. The python shell is meant to execute python code. py or Python/makeopcodetargets. The set of standard fixers that enables 2to3 to convert Python 2 code to Python 3 code are located in lib2to3. ps1 extension) followed by the script's parameters (if any), and press Enter. As we have seen in the previous section, if we just write the python command on the command line, it will open the Python 2. The script or callable object is executed in the main thread during the next idle event. This section covers the basics of how to install Python packages. if you save the above file as script_python and then set the execution permissions using. The Python interpreter can be run in two ways: as an interactive shell to execute individual commands, or as a command-line program to execute standalone scripts. If you compile and link this program (let's call the finished executable call), and use it to execute a Python script, such as:. When a script file is used, it is sometimes useful to be able to run the script and enter interactive mode afterwards. Distribution Utilities. Hit F5 or F6 to run. If this option is given, the first element of sys. This is where we'll eventually end up. -Recommended Syntax defined in Python Enhancement Proposal 8 (PEP8) •Where to write the. NOTE − As mentioned above, first argument is always script name and it is also being counted in number of arguments. Hi Serhan, It appears that when this code is run in a default "Python 2. To do this, just choose Run Script from the Edit menu of the editor window. Creating a Dockerfile. A simple example: import sys import arcpy x = sys. Execute the Python code contained in script, which must be a filesystem path (absolute or relative) referring to either a Python file, a directory containing a __main__. In a Terminal window, type python. Using Spyder which is part of the Anaconda suite. py") and save it. py but I don't know how to do this in windows, all I have managed to do is pull the script up, I can't work out how to actually make it run. Java Project Tutorial - Make Login and Register Form Step by Step Using NetBeans And MySQL Database - Duration: 3:43:32. Overview: Process the data in one run (i. Learn how to automate tasks in ArcGIS using Python scripting. execute python script from vb. Within a Python toolbox, the main body of the tool is found in the execute method. and indentation. py script accepts several arguments allowing, for example, installation into a non-default location that does not require administrative rights. I'd like to have C++ call the script but can't seem to find a good way to do this. It is a full-featured (see what's inside WinPython 2. Drag the script on the Python Launcher icon while holding the option key, and the preferences menu will spawn before the script is run, allowing you to adjust settings that will only apply to this run of the script. PyFiddle is a free lightweight Python IDE to run and share Python scripts with some nifty features, created with love by pythonista Priyank Pulumati and Beautiful Code. When right-clicking a script tool and selecting "Edit" or attempting to open Python IDLE from the Windows Start menu, nothing happens. This means that Python will only run on a single thread naturally. argv might have been changed by the time the call is made; the default argument is calculated at the time the main() function is defined, for all times. I have a Python script in which I input some login info, and it will output an aws key and security token to login to the account. Such files are called Python scripts and should have the file type of ". (I am not a command-line python expert, and the system that I'm on right now doesn't have a python executable, so I'm not sure if python correctly cascades the remaining command-line arguments to your script. Some time ago we created an example of how you could use Python from C, both as a separate process and how you could embed it and run it as part of your C program. Any participant…. Convert the script to use the new arcgisscripting module available at 9. x interpreter. 6 on Win XP) program, which is working fine. Choose a name ending in. path include the absolute path to the script. IDLE's shell does do this in conjunction with ScriptBinding's "Run Module". py all the time to launch your program gets daunting fast. Python uses two strategies for memory allocation: Reference counting Garbage collection Prior to. Listing 1: Call the script $ python arguments-programname. The default value for a function argument is only evaluated once, when the function is defined. The easiest way to execute a program in the python shell is to use IDLE. Detecting Circles With OpenCV and Python: Inspiration :-The Idea for this came when I was tinkering with OpenCV and it's various functions. py & test='hello' Does anybody in the raspberry pi community have any idea how to do this?. ps1 extension) followed by the script's parameters (if any), and press Enter. Here is an example Python command line script that demonstrates how to obtain data from the user with the Python 2 or 3 interpreter. py is a Python template which comes with Blender, this uses Python's argparse module, for more flexible handling of arguments. Writing, Saving and Running Python Programs with IDLE was posted by Jared on June 2nd, 2014. When I run the script in a toolbox in ArcGIS Pro 2. The test script contains a number of tests that are requests to the same URL. This is a Python object which acts as a proxy or “stand-in” for the remote object - when you call a method on a proxy object, this causes dbus-python to make a method call on the remote object, passing back any return values from the remote object’s method as the return values of the proxy method call. I mean, in Python functions can even have optional arguments, the scoping just works and functions can be passed as proper variables. This has the effect of getting IDLE to default to the directory when opening and saving files. While this is useful, most of the time you want to process the results of the call inside your script instead of just printing them to the console. Fortunately for you guys, in Mac OS X computers, Python is shipped by default. The only downside that I run into with Pyscopg2 and PostgreSQL is it is a little behind in terms of server side support functions like server side prepared queries but it is said that the author is expecting to implement these features in the near future. To learn more about parameters, see Understanding script tool parameters. Any idea how to do that ?. In python, executing the bash commands is a simple task. argv is a Python list of command line arguments that were passed to the Python script. There is an endless amount of pages that pop up when i search "Run a py file in vb. x was the last monolithic release of IPython, containing the notebook server, qtconsole, etc. Explicitly from the command line. argv might have been changed by the time the call is made; the default argument is calculated at the time the main() function is defined, for all times. To use Python on windows, you must install Python 3. Implicitly from the command line. My doubt is how to run a Simulink model from Python (I'm working in windows). py file extension, your Python programs can even generate other Python. This means that the window will remain after the command has been run. With the len(sys. Run Python Script on Mac. So let's begin, we will call our script "printerscript. py) which i can execute in node-red easily. It takes its inspiration from the original Python interactive interpreter. argv is a Python list of command line arguments that were passed to the Python script. Raises an auditing event cpython. py from the terminal command line. HOWTO: windows shortcut / icon for python script with arguments. Fire up Excel and start by making up some input data which we'll pass to the Python script, and save the workbook in the same folder as the Python script. python scriptname. To test the code, run it on your Python environment of choice. This will be the script that will run at. Later we’ll run. You can't just pass arguments through terminal without parsing them from your code. Now, whenever you launch IDLE using this shortcut, you will "start in" your own personal script directory. Related blog posts:. In addition to that, what is IDLE editor and how to write Python script using IDLE. R I got an email. You will understand how this works later. I wanted to execute that script from a link on a web page, instead, so I needed a way to pass the arguments I had been passing on the command line to the Python script in the URL that I'd specify as the link on the web page. I think your options would then be to: 1. Running Programs and Command Line Arguments. They would just further muddy up the waters, which are quite murky enough already. Python is one of the best languages to learn for someone new to programming. You will probably want to put the sleep command in the execute_on_boot. These include the Python Launcher, a GUI program that runs Python scripts. You type your code into Python IDLE. For example:. *; import java. An application that I'm currently developing would benefit from being able to run a Python script (with parameters) within another Python script. You can also run c:\python34\python with no arguments, which would bring up Python with an interactive >>> prompt. Child Process allows us to run Python script in Node JS application and stream in/out data into/from Python script. User must have licensing for ArcGIS Spatial Analyst Extension. Multiprocessing just provides a nice framework for you to do this, all while running just one script at a time, so things are a bit more organized. If it asks you to save your file click. Arguments, including LAMMPS variables, can be passed to the function from the LAMMPS input script and a value returned by the Python function to a LAMMPS variable. I have recently installed anaconda for python packages. So the bash script would do something like that : for i from 1 to 10 do python script. IronPython can use the. Within a Python toolbox, the main body of the tool is found in the execute method. Define custom commands for Python projects. While running a python script in IDLE that asks for arguments, no prompt appears that asks for parameters. File) and gives that file type an open command that runs the interpreter (D:\Program Files\Python\python. Active 8 months ago. x was the last monolithic release of IPython, containing the notebook server, qtconsole, etc. I executed this program using the command python disk. Python Tool Doesn't Show Any Results or Errors on Run. In this tutorial we learnt what are scripts and what the available file extensions in Python Programming language are. py Hello" Take a look at these links if that does not work for you. variable by editing the script, then run it. import pdb pdb. Run a Python script under Windows with the Command Prompt. You just have to pass the python. Type: Scripted (Python) and Scripted (Tcl) If you choose either Scripted (Python) or Scripted (Tcl) from the Add/Edit Parameter Dialog Fields, you can write a script that assigns the value of a parameter to the workspace at runtime. argv will be the script name as given on the command line. Can you update the prior tip in two ways: first, give more specific advice on how to run Python scripts from SSMS - with particular emphasis. ArcGIS Pro has a default conda environment, arcgispro-py3, that includes all Python libraries used by ArcGIS Pro as well as several others such as scipy and pandas. Remember to quote this string!. Arguments that are read from a file (see the fromfile_prefix_chars keyword argument to the ArgumentParser constructor) are read one argument per line. Run a Python script under Windows with the Command Prompt Windows users must pass the path of the program as an argument to the Python interpreter. spins it's wheels for a few seconds then bombs saying no value entered. Data pipelines are a good way to deploy a simple data processing task which needs to run on a daily or weekly schedule; it will automatically provision an EMR cluster for you, run your script, and then shut down at the end. I'm using a corporate AWS account. i don't know how to run script from Python shell Pythonwin Interactive Window). You can use Python extension modules and libraries with your AWS Glue ETL scripts as long as they are written in pure Python. I executed this program using the command python disk. pyt), tool parameters are defined in a tool class' getParameterInfo method by creating Parameter objects and setting their properties. One of the methods, Add, is then called from the script and given a list of integer variables as input parameters. Choose a name ending in. but i need to pass a json string to my python script as an input. x, print is a statement rather than a function. And paying users can get more space, and use scp and SFTP. The python shell is meant to execute python code. The web server of Try It Online and the arenas (where user code is executed) are currently run on three separate servers. I opened it and was able to import arcpy and successfully run my standalone script. Example To show how this works. Many IDE's are available for the Python programming language. Python provides a lot of modules for different operating system related operations. NOTE − As mentioned above, first argument is always script name and it is also being counted in number of arguments. It featured the absurd humour favoured by Monty Python and showcased the special chemistry between Michael Palin and John Cleese. Inside of the script these arguments are accessible through the list variable sys. execute() by using %s placeholders in the SQL statement, and passing a sequence of values as the second argument of the function. Also, PyMOL has lots of command line options that one can pass in to affect PyMOL's behavior. i have a python script works fine in my raspberry Pi but i want to work with my. Front row: Terry Jones, John Cleese, Michael Palin Monty Python, or The Pythons, is the collective name of the creators of Monty Python's Flying Circus, a British television comedy sketch show that first aired on the BBC on 5 October 1969. The integrated development environment (IDE) bundled with Python and the Raspberry Pi is called IDLE. Once the main thread is done executing the code, executeInMainThreadWithResult() returns the result. Running Programs and Command Line Arguments. See call python function matlab (2) If your python script squares a number (like in the linked example) then you could simply write. The markup used for the Python documentation is reStructuredText, developed by the docutils project, amended by custom directives and using a toolset named Sphinx to post-process the HTML output. Note: If you want to set or return an FME parameter this is not the place - see the Scripted Parameters article. This script will compute a value and assign it to a global parameter before the data is even read (for example, you might want to open a database, extract a value, and then run the workspace). But before we dive into the example, here is the batch file template that you can use to run the Python script: "Path where your Python exe is stored\python. Idle API Running Python code. You can also run c:\python34\python with no arguments, which would bring up Python with an interactive >>> prompt. 7" (sklearn v. scriptine scripts contain one ore more commands. A program can take any number of command line arguments. So I figured you just meant python (as in code in IDLE). Then you can call this script from Java Runtime. If you don’t have easy access to a command line, you can run the test suite from a Python or IDLE shell: >>>. I executed this program using the command python disk. There is an endless amount of pages that pop up when i search "Run a py file in vb. ps1 file from Windows Explorer opens the script in Notepad rather than executing the script with. Creating an Executable from a Python Script Python is one of my favorite programming languages. I can also write in the terminal bash script. That would be another issue. Congratulations, you got your first Python script to work. Configure Notepad++ to run a python script. However, later on, when we create scripts in the Python language to execute from Bash, we need to specify in the very first line of the script: we want to use Python to run this script. spins it's wheels for a few seconds then bombs saying no value entered. However, running the script from Task Scheduler will only open the script in Python and not run it. Any participant…. In the previous tutorial we learnt how to create and execute a Python script using IDLE. Info: I have Python 2. Note that we run a local code not run a remote code after loading it at remote place. So if you can, run the Python script as administrator. Python is an interpreted programming language, which means that for one to execute Python code on their local machine, they have to make sure they have the official interpreter. So far, we have covered the main programming structures used in Python. That said, if you were to look at running processes, you will see a ton of Python processes running, as if you were running a bunch of Python scripts. py script from Chapter 1:. The only solution to accept input to python scripts is via command line. Python - How do you run a. The motivating examples were standard library modules such as pdb and profile, and the Python 2. You can substitute your own director/Python script name instead of using mine. No change to run the script as administrator ! (Mar-20-2017, 03:46 PM) zivoni Wrote: You cant execute directly program and parameters in one string with Popen - it tries to run command named "program parameter" and there is no such program. pl as the argument to the something. The Linux shell is more than just a way of running commands that users type in. What data types are used to pass data between SQL and Python/R processes. Configure Notepad++ to run a python script. It will save the file in current editor immediately without a confirmation, be aware. Method of use. Passing parameter in python script from C# to create the scope within which the script is going to run and then set Pass Python Object As Argument To C#. A file containing Python code, for e. After receiving the email I was sure the script will run and disconnected using Ctrl + p and Ctrl + q. For example, one can load a few proteins and even execute a script all from the commandline. This feature is only supported in the Professional edition. Working Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 22K. Jennifer Harrison—founder of TeachMeGIS—gets you comfortable writing scripts in IDLE, the integrated development environment for Python, and ramps up to writing output to the screen, passing. This is a Python object which acts as a proxy or “stand-in” for the remote object - when you call a method on a proxy object, this causes dbus-python to make a method call on the remote object, passing back any return values from the remote object’s method as the return values of the proxy method call. The __init__ method is run as soon as an object of a class is instantiated. py put these lines at the top of the file: import sys sys. There are several Python code analyzers that you can use to check your code and see if they conform to standards. Still, if you want to run python code with the help of VBA and the Shell through the CommandPrompt of Windows, you are probably at the right place. You can use it to run commands or in this case, a Python script. Execute python script from PHP with parameters? Running scripts without parameters works fine. In the windows that opens, type "cmd" and click OK. The Python language has a substantial body of documentation, much of it contributed by various authors. I've had trouble with crontab and directory management and my solution is to amke a shell script, which always navigates to the proper directory and will launch my bbt. To explain, the arguments of os. py)?-A text file with. Running a python script in matlab. That would be another issue. py file extension associates the file with Python. It appears that the Raspbian boot sequence has changed and these processes run at different points in that sequence. # I have to run a script which takes a command line parameter which is unicode text # I cant use Windows console as it doesnt support /display unicode # I dont seems to find a way to pass command line arguments to scripts in IDLE. This is the command; i need all the parameteres and the double quotes in order to to evreything as expected. The executable ( python ) Our Python script file ( simple_example. Sometimes you may want to create a shortcut / double-clickable icon for a Python script and pass in some arguments. Lastly is the 2to3 script itself, which you run to do the conversion. In a previous article we went over why you might want to integrate both R and Python into a single pipeline, and how to do so via the use of a flat file air-gap. So I figured you just meant python (as in code in IDLE). The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: