Hex String To Byte Array

디버깅을 하기 위해서는 눈으로 값을 직접 봐야하니 Hex String으로 바꾸는 경우가 많습니다. byte[] getHeaderData() Returns this header's payload as a byte array. Many thanks for guides from nice man from Siemens. Byte arrays can be transformed to and from a hexadecimal string representation. ' Converted the Char value x to the Byte value 120. The following code changes the hexadecimal string to a byte array by parsing the string byte-by-byte. Byte class creates primitives that wrap themselves around data items of the byte data type: 2. When GDB starts, this limit is set to 200. How to convert Byte Array to Hexadecimal String, and Hexadecimal String to Byte Array? oc April 30, 2017 0 This is a very common question over the Internet and the question among the developers, but it very difficult to find an answer that neatly explains how you can convert a byte array to a hexadecimal string, and vice versa. How to convert a byte array to a hex string in Java? Java 8 Object Oriented Programming Programming The printHexBinary() method of the DatatypeConverter class accepts a byte array and returns a hex string. We use cookies to give you the best experience on our website. This example uses the GetBytes method of the Encoding. However, I have to convert 7 bytes of hex data to ASCII representation in decimal array. In the UI, you can also type more bytes and "Add" them to the array. Synopsis # Returns a hex representation of a System. But our last few posts were about what if you have an array of bytes that you want to convert to a string of hex characters. public class VerbosePacketStream extends PrintStream. ToString("X") ), it is not so easy to convert a hexadecimal string back into a byte array. 05: 자바 int to hex (0) 2015. Yes it is easy and trivial but really I need help. hex string to byte array, C. I've seen a million ways to do it. Alternative names are C string , which refers to the C programming language and ASCIIZ (although C can use encodings other than ASCII). get Brightness, get Hex Name: 8. Login - Getting netware login name Now unbounded array will contain the values of the bounded array, dimensioned at 5. I don't unders byte array initialization (Beginning Java forum at Coderanch). Therefore 64 characters are chosen that are both members of a subset common to most encodings (ASCII), and also printable. You should line up your reference points, and work out from there. (Just as a side-note, I know that some of the. Component: getImageObserver(). Strings can be transformed to and from arrays of Bytes using specified encodings and to and from arrays of Chars. You got subscript out of range because d does not contains the tag string, the internal Split () produce an array of only one element (0). Re: How to convert the Byte arry to HEX String 795426 Mar 12, 2008 4:51 PM ( in response to 807589 ) nacht wrote: why in the hell is there not an easier way to do this? all i want is a simple function that will work the same way as System. rep("a", 2^20). I still think that it is a good idea to answer OP's question instead of making a general post that may be useful to someone. Then, calling ToString() on that Byte Array simply converts that character-based byte array back into its string representation. printf format string refers to a control parameter used by a class of functions in the input/output libraries of C and many other programming languages. * Generates a hexadecimal string from an array of bytes. Returns a description of the header along with this header as a hexadecimal string. To convert byte array to hex value, we loop through each byte in the array and use String 's format(). The first method uses Hex. About Mkyong. convert from the HEX string to a byte array. If either dest or src is a null pointer, the behavior is undefined, even if count is zero. NumberUtils. 디버깅을 하기 위해서는 눈으로 값을 직접 봐야하니 Hex String으로 바꾸는 경우가 많습니다. In this article, we learned the conversion algorithm between byte array to hexadecimal String. I am a Java novice and ended up using BigInteger and watching out for leading hex zeros. Use the New-Object Cmdlet to create it; since your passing an Array as the only argument, the Array needs to be preceded by the Comma operator and wrapped in an expression:. Usage Note In Visual Basic and C#, you can call this method as an instance method on any object of type OffsetBuffer Byte. NET Framework functions. length* 2 );. GetString(re). Quick and Dirty HexDump of a Byte Array. This post is just a code snippet written by someone getting started. SelfADSI : Microsoft Security Identifier (SID) Attributes. You got subscript out of range because d does not contains the tag string, the internal Split () produce an array of only one element (0). Hello,I want to convert a string with hex number to byte array, this string includes a tip information, but I don't want to add this tip to byte arry. We have stored some numeric elements in this byte array variable. When the binary data to be transferred is larger than a single byte, it is necessary to first typecast the value or array to a U8 Array, then convert this array to a string which is acceptable to VISA Write. The string is written in a simple template language: characters are usually copied literally into the function's output, but format specifiers, which start with a % character, indicate the location and method to translate a piece of data (such. static int: isStringChar(java. Hex String to Byte Array. the starting point to copy bytes from. String string, int index) Check if the current character is a String Char. I hope someone can give me some instructions, thanks a lot. Hex encoder/decoder implementation borrowed from BouncyCastle: 2. Have you ever needed to convert a byte array (byte []) into a displayable hex string? The JDK does not provide this capability for byte arrays, only for the wrapper classes. C# String To Array C# Strings. The easiest Hex string to/from byte array I've found When looking for a utility function to convert from a hex string to a byte array, I found this example. Convert Byte Array To Hex. C/C++ function to Convert Hex String to Decimal Number May 7, 2014 No Comments c / c++ , code , code library , programming languages , tricks In C/C++ header file stdlib. Join(" ", hexArray) End. And as a result calculations are not correct. Charset: A Charset is an optional argument. Topic: byte array to String (Read 75245 times) previous topic - next topic. g 15 6F D1 8A 4) so I cannot use the Spreadsheet String To Array function, I tried to do something on my own, but everything seems to be too complicated is there any proper, clean and neat way to achieve what I want?. Get Hex string out of byte array: 7. func Dump ¶ func Dump(data []byte) string. Similarly, the binary file can be padded up to Length -1 with FF or another byte. In this program, we have a byte array named bytes. Thanks guys. Login - Getting netware login name Now unbounded array will contain the values of the bounded array, dimensioned at 5. Other Functions. the two encodings would produce the same byte array I search MSDN and this forum and came up with the following (the database field is NVARCHAR, therefore I used the UnicodeEncoding object):. byte 4 current length of the string. C# data type. If the objects overlap, the behavior is undefined. Interview question for Software Engineer in Bellevue, WA. How to convert a byte Array to Base64 String in Blackberry. reverse() return result. Also note that while leading and trailing spaces parse successfully, formatting symbols, such as currency symbols, group separators, or decimal separators, do not. #include //The is a C programme to decrement an array from the last element to the first. byte 4 current length of the string. So, it has been suggested that I try and convert to byte array to a HEX string on the client for postback to the server, then do the opposite on the other end - HEX string to byte array. Some Notes : A hex string can also be specified in the constructor of this object. One constructs based on a range of bytes (specified by a start and offset). You should line up your reference points, and work out from there. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. Test case created by on 2013-11-15. Colors in Windows are. Login - Getting netware login name Now unbounded array will contain the values of the bounded array, dimensioned at 5. This function reads the hex file, parses it, extracting the data and placing them into the the uint8_t array based on the data's address found in the hexfile. g 15 6F D1 8A 4) so I cannot use the Spreadsheet String To Array function, I tried to do something on my own, but everything seems to be too complicated is there any proper, clean and neat way to achieve what I want?. 8 at 10am PT, to discuss how npm can help. Hex to Binary Online Converter. The byte array does not actually contain any sensible data, but for the sake of the example, that does not matter. In VB6/VBA, use the StrConv function. Then we had a string literal representing the direct, actual characters of the hexadecimal value of the byte. You can easily convert string to byte[] in one line: var byteArray = Encoding. Unicode encoding class to convert a string into an array of bytes. parseInt(input, 16) method and cast it back to a char. I have a byte array filled with hex numbers and printing it the easy way is pretty pointless because there are many unprintable elements. (This is still almost certainly the right thing to do; I just want to confirm I'm not misunderstanding the typing rules in this context). I seek a VBA way to convert these bytes to the VBA "Long" integer. but this byte array contains ASCII values like B8 = 184, 0c = 12, and i want to convert this byte array of ASCII value into byte array of hex value. rep("a", 2^20). The returned bytes object is therefore twice as long as the length of data. Something like that: my specific string 0x0F 0x2C 0x98 0xBC How can I parse this string in the arduino to get an array of hex val. The default value is. Arduino Forum > Using I'm having trouble figuring out how to convert a hex string such as "A489B1" into an array like [0xA4, 0x89, 0xB1]. length* 2 );. So, DO NOT store or print byte arrays as regular Strings, but as Hex Strings. A String is stored as an array of Unicode characters in Java. Think of buffer as just another word for an array, list, whatever resonates with your programming experience. hex String To. Converts a hex string to byte array. ASCII was developed a long time ago and now the non-printing characters are rarely used for their original purpose. (You are not changed the codec of an 8-bit string, you are rather converting it, so using a "hex" codec is weird to say the least). The returned byte array will be half the length of the passed, as it takes two characters to represent any given byte. (This is still almost certainly the right thing to do; I just want to confirm I'm not misunderstanding the typing rules in this context). The PoShKeePass module gives you a byte array to work with, but Keepass displays what looked to me like a hex string. Values are unsigned and thus are in the range [0,255] rather than the signed byte range of [-128, 127]. append(String. You typically use the String. Click the "Byte Array -> Hex String" button to convert the byte array to a hex string. #include //The is a C programme to decrement an array from the last element to the first. hex String To. There are lots of solutions for converting a Java byte array to a hexadecimal string. In this tutorial, we will show you how to convert hex to a byte array and vice verse in vb. js, Life, and Love. A String object holds and manipulates an arbitrary sequence of bytes, typically representing characters. How do I convert a byte[] to a string? Every time I attempt it, I get System. 0 - Updated Jan 23, 2019 - 278 stars Get a stream as a string, buffer, or array. Let us consider the string is s. If you continue to. // destination array. Make Int From Byte: 32. Does anybody have an idea of how to accomplish this on the client side?. How do we convert a string to a byte array (byte[]) and the other way around. My best guess is that multiple bytes of 0 do not make it into the string. AbstractTransformer. func Dump ¶ func Dump(data []byte) string. Converts a Byte array to a Hex String. We use %02X to print two places ( 02 ) of Hexadecimal ( X ) value and store it in the string st. In this article, we learned the conversion algorithm between byte array to hexadecimal String. A bytes object is an immutable sequence of bytes, conceptually similar to a string. If it is a string, you must also give the encoding (and optionally, errors) parameters; bytearray() then converts the string to bytes using str. The following is our byte array. I suppose a full test would be what you've done before, which is to take an array from 0x00 through 0xFF and convert that from pure binary to a HEX string using your toHex() function, validate that you did it all, and then convert the HEX string back to binary bytes and validate that this worked. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. convert the byte array to Base64 encoding 3. Methods: Base64 class has overloaded methods. If you simply cast input to char* and output it, then the bytes will be interpreted as if the file already contained ASCII characters. new Object [] {name, new Integer (age)} In this expression, the first element in the Object array is a String, which corresponds to the first format specifier, "%s". Indepth information on usage of the Msgbox() function. And I don't really understand why it doesn't return the original byte array. So, it has been suggested that I try and convert to byte array to a HEX string on the client for postback to the server, then do the opposite on the other end - HEX string to byte array. jsch with parameters of type JSch. Fields inherited from class org. The length of a string can also be stored explicitly, for example by prefixing the string with the length as a byte value. the two encodings would produce the same byte array I search MSDN and this forum and came up with the following (the database field is NVARCHAR, therefore I used the UnicodeEncoding object):. Often, some kind of separator is used to make the encoded data easier for human reading. To convert it to a byte array, we translate the sequence of Characters into a sequence of bytes. ToString End Function. Sample C# code to convert Hexadecimal String to Bytes The following code snippet can be used to convert Hexadecimal String into a Byte array. static int: isStringChar(java. Get Hex string out of byte array: 7. string hex = BitConverter. length() / 2]; Now, take a for loop until the length of the byte array. Converts bytes data to hex characters @param bytes byte array to be converted to hex string @return byte String in hex format private static String bytesToHex(byte[] bytes) { char[] hexChars = new char[bytes. Use toString method of Byte class to convert Byte into String: 2. From hex string s of 2n digits, build the equivalent array a of n bytes. Like ‘x’ formatting, the value is treated as an integer and printed as hexadecimal, but leading zeros are printed to pad the value to the size of the integer type. Convert byte to String: Creating a byte array and passing it to the String constructor: 5. Many thanks for guides from nice man from Siemens. The join function allows to join the hexadecimal result into a string. ToCharArray(); But I have not been able to figure out how to convert a char into a hex. Hex is simply binary in a form which. My attempts to put this byte array in a hidden field for post back to the server have given mixed reults, in that the size of the byte array decreases when sent to the server. Conversion between byte array and string may be used in many cases including IO operations, generate secure hashes etc. You simply convert each byte to hexadecimal, ideally to a preallocated buffer. For instance 255 can be changed to 'FF' (also 'ff') or '0xff'. Length \ 2) For i As Integer = 0 To hex. The following shows a implementation of such methods. How to: Convert Strings into an Array of Bytes in Visual Basic. While Java has built in classes to compute SHA 1 hash, it's quite uneasy to use them for a simple task -- calculate SHA-1 hash and return 40 byte hexadecimal string. Therefore 64 characters are chosen that are both members of a subset common to most encodings (ASCII), and also printable. Numerical base used to represent the value as a string, between 2 and 36, where 10 means decimal base, 16 hexadecimal, 8 octal, and 2 binary. In this tutorial, we will show you how to convert hex to a byte array and vice verse in vb. For that you have to determine if you are scanning left to right or right to left. This example uses extension methods to convert between byte arrays and hexadecimal strings. The format function converts the bytes in hexadecimal format. Specifically, it returns x / 2. These numbers are ASCII codes for the lowercase letters "abc. For example, byte values can range from 0 to 255 (decimal) but may be more conveniently represented as two hexadecimal digits in the range 00 through FF. Byte count, two hex digits (one hex digit pair), indicating the number of bytes (hex digit pairs) in the data field. Thanks guys. Also my C++ is very beginner level. In a hexadecimal string, one byte is represented two hexadecimal characters. rep(s, n) returns the string s repeated n times. Convert 7 byte Hex array to Decimal We're using PIC18F25J50 with XC8 compiler, The XC8 compiler supports for max long integer is 32 bits. String to Hexadecimal. To convert a Byte[] array into a string containing hex characters in a variety of formats: function Convert-ByteArrayToHexString { ##### #. A Char is a single Unicode character. There's an easy one to go from a hex string to an int, but not from hex string to array of bytes: using System; using System. format() method and pass a BigDecimal with the byte array of the original string, we can easily convert an ASCII string to Hexadecimal(Hex). Another Quick Reference Code Snippet. HexByteConverter. But there are additional costs involved. value - the value of the specified byte at index. Using a bunch of help from posts on SO I was able to cob. If your String contains a. Convert String offers free and secure online tools for converting strings between formats. Unicode encoding class to convert a string into an array of bytes. ASCII was actually designed for use with teletypes and so the descriptions are somewhat obscure. The byte array will be copied and pasted to the byte array combobox as the input of the Byte Array -> Hex String conversion. How to: Convert a byte Array to an int (C# Programming Guide) 07/20/2015; 2 minutes to read +5; In this article. Empty throws a FormatException. Make Int From Byte: 32. Since bytes are binary data but String is character data, it's. Using a bunch of help from posts on SO I was able to cob. Converts a Byte array to a Hex String. Convert a byte array to a String with a hexidecimal format. In the example that follows, we will then convert that byte array back to a string, effectively showing you how to do the conversion both ways. Post a Comment. This can be put in CSS or HTML files directly. // string hax를 byte array로 변환 private static byte[] StringToByteArray(string hex) { return Enumerable. open Serial port, send array of hex bytes If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. Forum Thread - How to create an array of hex bytes from a string? - WinForms. LinqJoin = Answer by mloskot, string. The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits. In this tutorial, we will show you how to convert hex to a byte array and vice verse in vb. I am a Java novice and ended up using BigInteger and watching out for leading hex zeros. Re: Convert Hex String to byte array Alessandro Rossi Jul 23, 2007 11:58 AM ( in response to 507350 ) Insert the values on the second column of the following query in a byte array. Note: Some methods of this class accept an array-valued argument in addition to arguments that specify an array offset and possibly also a length. As soon as you assign something to the string, BASIC allocates some storage for it and fills in the address part. The file pointer is located at 0 when the file is opened. your method is not usable. Byte(24), dbus. You may have to register or Login before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. mdf) manually in Visual Studio 2015; d-fens GmbH [NoBrainer] Using PowerShell to convert an IPv4 subnet mask length into a subnet mask address [HOWTO] Send Mails and Create Calendar Entries with the Office365/Exchange 2016 REST API using PowerShell. Convert Byte Array To Hex. NET The hexadecimal string for the above array of bits would be "59". Does your artifact manager get in the way? Join us on Oct. The hex string will be displayed in the Hex String textbox. Thanks guys. But if you don't need to use the data as a string, i. To convert Hexadecimal(Hex) to ASCII , we cut the Hex value in pairs, convert it to radix 16 using the Integer. The code sample demonstrates how to convert a hex string to bytes and convert bytes to a hex string. gawk understands locales (see section Where You Are Makes a Difference) and does all string processing in terms of characters, not bytes. My needs are speed over memory, so. When GDB starts, this limit is set to 200. The bytes of the string follow. Using a bunch of help from posts on SO I was able to cob. Convert the bytes to a hex string representation of the bytes: 2. I came across an issue where I needed to convert a string representing HEX value into corresponding byte array. ' Converted the String value 104 to the Byte value 104. Hex To ASCII Converter. Python bytes() The bytes() method returns a immutable bytes object initialized with the given size and data. hex_string = Hex$(long_value. For that you have to determine if you are scanning left to right or right to left. The syntax of bytes() method is: The bytes() method returns a bytes object which is an immmutable (cannot be modified) sequence of integers in the range 0 <=x < 256. Byte to Hex-String Conversion If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. Translates between byte arrays and strings of "0"s and "1"s. Convert a byte[] array to readable string format. If it is a string, you must also give the encoding (and optionally, errors) parameters; bytearray() then converts the string to bytes using str. I guess that byte array contains text in a certain character encoding, and you want to make characters out of it. Hexadecimal string. The hash is then converted into a string by converting all digits to hexadecimal. How to Convert byte array to hexString in java? (Java) - Codedump. Sample C# code to convert Hexadecimal String to Bytes The following code snippet can be used to convert Hexadecimal String into a Byte array. I'll cover the following topics in the code samples below: ASCIIEncoding, StringBuilder, Bytes, Class, GetBytes, Hex, Hexadecimal, Hex String, and Byte Array. String converted = new String(byteArray, StandardCharsets. Because the ASCII Hex codes are all less than 80h, a serial link transmitting ASCII Hex values can save a little time by ignoring the high bit and transmitting 7-bit values. Convert from a hex string to a byte array in C# Feb 08, 2012 03:09 AM | dc2000 | LINK I was wondering if there's an easy way to convert from a string composed of hex bytes to a byte array?. Katharnavas Tech Blog. Strings are enclosed by single or double quotes. a hex string with an odd. I found the function BinToHex, but it seams not to work with a array of byte or a byte only with PChar. com/questions/311165/how-do-you-convert-byte-array-to-hexadecimal-string-and-vice-versa. Such a function is useful when you need to backup data from your application on paper, such as an. I came across an issue where I needed to convert a string representing HEX value into corresponding byte array. 3 String-Manipulation Functions. Convert hex to text and hex decode strings. No promises are made about code quality. So when the device sends me a 32 bit integer 1234567 decimal my VBA function gets a "String" of 4 non-printable hex bytes: 0x00 0x12 0xD6 and 0x87, which is 1234567 decimal. Bets regards. #include //The is a C programme to decrement an array from the last element to the first. ArrayOfBytes[1] should contain the value of the first byte that was in a file. The hex string will be displayed in the Hex String textbox. You simply convert each byte to hexadecimal, ideally to a preallocated buffer. static XBeePacket: parsePacket (String packet Parses the given hexadecimal string and returns. NET Framework the source code is relatively simple without worrying about the string parsing algorithms too much. This example outputs the hexadecimal value of each character in a string. Range(0, hex. The two fundamental data types in C# are value types and reference types. 8 at 10am PT, to discuss how npm can help. 그래서 이번 포스팅에서는 16진법 문자열(Hex String)와 바이트 배열(Byte Array)를 넘어다니는 함수를 알려드리겠습니다. This involves iteratively computing SHA256 twice on a concatenation of a fixed "BlockHash" string and a 32-bit int nonce which is incremented every iteration. SHA-1 hash considered to be one of the most secure hashing functions, producing a 160-bit digest (40 hex numbers) from any data with a maximum size of 264 bits. However, if you are using Unicode characters the number of characters in a string may be different to the number of bytes in the string. Usage Note In Visual Basic and C#, you can call this method as an instance method on any object of type OffsetBuffer Byte. This example creates a 3-byte array and writes the array’s contents to a port: Dim byteBuffer(2) As Byte. For that you have to determine if you are scanning left to right or right to left. When reading and writing binary files: it's almost always a good idea to use buffering (default buffer size is 8K) it's often possible to use references to abstract base classes, instead of references to specific concrete classes. Interestingly Python allows the representation of the hexadecimal string in two different forms. 1BestCsharp blog 5,458,619 views. Option 1: Building the hex string using a for loop In my meanders looking for a solution to the MD5 hash, this is the algorithm that I ran into the most. Appreciate your help. I came across an issue where I needed to convert a string representing HEX value into corresponding byte array. To convert a byte to it's hexadecimal equivalent: 2. Hi, Right now I'm trying to write a list of hex values (strings) to a disk file in Python 3. 4 (850151a75 2015-04-30) (built 2015-04-30). filter_none. The hex characters are then stored as the two byte string representation of the characters. convert the byte array to Base64 encoding. The string is written in a simple template language: characters are usually copied literally into the function's output, but format specifiers, which start with a % character, indicate the location and method to translate a piece of data (such. You simply convert each byte to hexadecimal, ideally to a preallocated buffer. A ByteArray holds, well, an array of Bytes. String objects may be created using String::new or as literals. About Mkyong. hexadecimal zero, where AA is the alpha (usually 0), BB is the blue component, GG is Green, and RR is red. I am a Java novice and ended up using BigInteger and watching out for leading hex zeros. Length Dim hexArray(count - 1) As String For idx As Integer = 0 To count - 1 hexArray(idx) = ascii(idx). ToHexStr String Concat. the starting point to copy bytes from. This snippet explores the change of a hexadecimal (base 16) string to a denary (base 10) integer and the reverse. Hey, thanks a lot. We have stored some numeric elements in this byte array variable. This is far simpler than most instructions you will find on the web: Code: Select all public String ByteArrayToString(byte[] ba) //ba = template. String: toHexString() Return the a 32-character String equal to the hex equivalent of this MD5 value. Abs(number) Absolute (positive) value of number. We use %02X to print two places (02) of Hexadecimal (X) value and store it in the string st. We also have a finalPath where the bytes are to be written. length() / 2]; Now, take a for loop until the length of the byte array. Usage Note In Visual Basic and C#, you can call this method as an instance method on any object of type OffsetBuffer Byte. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: